Art 1 Lecture Notes, Assignments and Due Dates:
Students are to complete a Value Drawing based on an object in real life or a photo from real life.A Value Drawing stresses the use of highlights and shadows to create the illusion of 3-Dimensional form. The drawing will be evaluated on the following:1. Utilize all of the paper.2. Create a range of values from black to white, with multiple shades of gray in between.3. Through shading, work to create edges and eliminate outlines.
Writing example:In this painting I am represented by three things because I could not decide on just one. The poetry book represents my love for poetry and the poetry I write. The rose sitting on the book is just because I like simple, pretty things. The hands reveal my other passions of drawing and writing. I love to draw and get pencil marks all over my hands. It’s just fun and is a way to express myself. I also like to write stories, which is represented by other hand with “writing” painted on it. I chose the hands because they are what is needed to draw and write. I added the book because I love to read, especially anything related to the Civil War era. My favorite author is John Grisham. The heart with “Mom” in it obviously represents my mother. She and I talk a lot and are very close. She is my favorite person. I hate it when people are judged for what they wear or how they look instead of who they are inside, so I painted the word “prejudice” with a line put through it. Last, and not least, is my favorite possession, or creation, Ted. Ted is a cartoon character I created and like to draw in my free time. As an afterthought, I used different shades of green and blue they remind me of the ocean, and I love the ocean.
WHAT IS ART?
What constitutes art can be interpreted in various ways by different people, and because art is very personal in nature, there is no “one size fits all definition”. For some people art is strictly the drawings, paintings, sculptures, etc., that one would find in any art gallery or museum. For other people art is considered to be more a performance or process rather than a product. For these people the act of expression or portrayal of emotion is as important as the finished product. “Performance artists” actually exist, and there is support for the theory that every person’s life is a work of art in progress. Each person makes value judgments and decisions regarding how he or she dresses, what one likes and dislikes, and how one chooses to live and interact with others. These choices are expressed visibly through actions and deeds.
Whatever point of view you have regarding art, in the final analysis there must be a visible representation or expression of an image, thought or idea. For our purposes we will describe art as the process of “bringing into being” or the “making visible of mental images.” This unit focuses on the visual arts, but it is important to realize that there is crossover between the visual arts and the performing arts of stage and music.
WHAT IS DRAWING?
Drawing is the “first means of expression” in art. Drawing is generally the medium of choice regarding “brainstorming” and “development of ideas.” A piece of sculpture, a work of architecture, a painting, or a contemporary chair (as examples) were all conceived as drawings first, then evolved into finished art works. If the practice of art is a process of “bringing into being” or the “making visible of mental images”, then drawing is a very important way of gaining knowledge of, and insight into, both life and art.
What does drawing involve? First you must have something upon which to draw. This surface, which usually comes in the form of a sheet of paper, represents empty space and is called your ground. Secondly, you must have an instrument (a pencil or pen, etc.) that will mark the surface by scratching into it or by staining it. The impression of marks on a ground or surface fall into three categories: They may take the form of lines, points or dots, or a marked general area. Through the use of these you as an artist may “suggest the image” of whatever you are drawing.
This “image” represents form or the figure of your drawing, which is considered to be “positive space” or space occupied by form. Empty space, or “negative space” is considered to be any space not occupied by form, and still is referred to as ground. This is the concept of “figure and ground.”
EXPERIMENT A: INVESTIGATING LINE and MARK CHARACTERISTICS.
When drawing do not grip the pencil too close to the tip or point. An artist “draws”, which is different from the normal approach of writing. Grip the pencil 1 ½ - 2 inches from the tip, holding the pencil in a manner that feels comfortable and controlled.
On a sheet of paper using a #2 lead pencil, draw a horizontal line approximately 4” long, creating as dark a line as possible by exerting maximum pressure on your pencil. Under this line draw a series of six (6) horizontal lines of the same 4” length, each line being slightly lighter than the line above it. Hold the paper at arm’s length. What line appears to be closest to you? What line appears to be furthest away?
Draw a diagonal line, starting on one end with dark heavy pressure, gradually letting up on the pressure of the pencil until the line disappears. Which end of the diagonal appears closest to you? Consider what line or mark characteristics appear more frontal and what characteristics give the appearance of being further away.
It is important to remember that a line is simply a dot set in motion, the action of the motion becoming the characteristic of the line. Draw a range of lines from angular, zigzag lines to lines that are looping and rounded. Notice the difference in the characteristics expressed by each line.
THE THREE METHODS of CREATING DEPTH:
There are three primary methods of helping the artist create the illusion of depth in a drawing or painting. While any one method helps the illusion of depth, using the three methods in combination with one another heightens the sense of depth in a work of art. The three methods are:
1. VALUE – Dark values appear frontal and light values recede into the background.
2. SIZE or PROPORTION – Larger forms appear frontal and smaller forms appear further away.
3. OVERLAPPING – Forms that overlap other forms appear more frontal, and overlapped forms recede into the background.
EXERCISE #1: DRAWING an OBJECT in REPETITION (10 pts LINE & 15 pts VALUE: 1 1/2 to 2 Periods)
LINE DRAWING: Using pencil on the top half of a sheet of 9”x12” drawing paper, draw any three-dimensional object of your choice, repeating the object a minimum of seven times using outlines only. Create depth in your drawing by making your objects smaller as they recede into the distance. Use darker lines on the closer forms and lighter lines on forms further away. Use overlapping of forms to heighten the illusion of depth in your drawing.
VALUE DRAWING: On the bottom half of the same sheet, redraw the same object in repetition again, this time utilizing shading and highlights with marked general areas of values. Utilize the same three methods of creating depth as you employed in the line drawing, emphasizing darker values on frontal objects and lighter values on objects as they recede into the distance.
WHAT IS ARTIST STYLE?
What constitutes an artist’s style? How an individual artist uses lines and marks to create images reveals the artist’s style. Over time, artists develop a consistent method or approach to drawing. Each individual artist’s use of lines and marks becomes his or her artist signature. There are two (2) general groups of artist styles: Deliberate-precise and Free-action.
Deliberate-precision (sometimes called contour drawing) involves a style with very controlled lines and marks. This style gives very precise information about the essential shape of the forms in the drawing. This style projects a feeling of order and regularity.
The Free-action style (sometimes called gesture drawing) involves drawings with free flowing and more spontaneous lines and marks. This style is like a controlled scribble, and expresses a feeling of action and excitement.
Deliberate-precise Style Free-action Style
EXERCISE #2: FREE-ACTION DRAWING of TREES (Group exercise-Ungraded: 1/2 Period)
Study or think about a “tree” for a few minutes, gaining an understanding of a tree’s basic structure. A tree grows from large to small with the trunk gradually becoming smaller from its base, continually branching into smaller limbs that also decrease in size as they grow further from the trunk. Using a pencil on 9”x12” drawing paper, quickly sketch a tree using a loose, free-action style. The sketching process should only take 20-30 seconds. Do not worry about details, but try to capture the general structure and form of the tree. Repeat the process until you have drawn a grove of five or six trees, each tree being a different distance from the viewer. Keep in mind the three ways of creating depth in a drawing.
EXERCISE #3: DRAWING HUMAN FIGURES USING the FREE-ACTION (GESTURE) STYLE (25 pts. - 1 to 2 Periods)
Draw the following human forms using the Free-action style to capture the gesture of the figures:
1) Man standing 2) Man running
3) Man jumping 4) Two men boxing
5) A waitress carrying an order of food 6) Man sitting
7) Two people hugging 8-10) Three gesture drawings of your choice.
EXERCISE #4: LINE WEAVING (an exercise in DELIBERATE-PRECISION style) (25 pts: 3 Periods)
Using pencil on 9”x12” white drawing paper, create a line weaving design using rows and loops of parallel lines. As this is an exercise in deliberate-precision, work to achieve uniform and consistent lines of the same value and thickness. The object is to cover as much of the white of your paper as possible with lines. You need not have anything definite in mind when you begin, just develop the pattern as you go. Think of your line weaving as a giant doodle. You may incorporate words and shapes within your line weaving.
EXERCISE #5: COMPARISON-CONTRAST DRAWINGS (25 pts. - 3 Periods )
Using pencil on 9”x12” white drawing paper, draw an object from real life observation using three different approaches or styles:
1) Free-action 2) Deliberate-precision contour 3) Value
Repeat the above procedure for eight (8) different objects using one side of a sheet of paper for each object.
EXERCISE #6: DRAWING the BASIC SHAPES
The four geometrical basic shapes are the cylinder, the cone, the sphere and the cube. The artist Paul Cézanne, considered by many to be the father of modern art, believed that every form in nature could be reduced to one of the four basic shapes, or a combination of the basic shapes. Learning to draw the illusion of the basic shapes is helpful to the artist because these techniques transfer to the drawing of any object or form.
The student is to draw one "practice drawing" for each of the basic shapes prior to doing each of the following. The practice shpae is to be approved by the teacher before continuing with the following:
Using a separate sheet of 9”x12” white drawing paper for each of the four basic shapes, compose a pencil drawing that involves the basic shape repeated a minimum of four (4) times. You may stack your shapes or line them up as objects in repetition. Start your drawings by using light lines in a free-action style to sketch the basic form, then shade your areas using value gradients, gradually changing values from light to dark (highlight to shadow core). Work to eliminate outlines and use shading to create edges on the outside of the forms.
EXERCISE #6A: Draw four (4) cylinders. (25 pts: 2-3 Periods)
EXERCISE #6B: Draw four (4) cones. (25 pts: 2 Periods)
EXERCISE #6C: Draw four (4) spheres. (25 pts: 2 -3 Periods)
EXERCISE #6D: Draw three stacks of CUBES. (25 pts: 2 Periods)
Cuts & Slices of the Basic Shapes (Basic Shapes Follow-up Exercise)
(50 pts: 3-4 Periods)
Project: Create a Composition using cuts and slices of the four (4) basic shapes. Use overlapping of forms to create depth in your drawing.
Earlier we investigated the use of lines and marks and the way we see them individually or together as “figure” separate from space or “ground”. Now we will consider the use of line, mark, and space in describing objects, objects that have definite structural characteristics. Despite the vast range of objects and forms in nature, it is possible to see two principle structural types. Those objects that consist of “bulky surfaces” belong to the family of mass forms (i.e., a ball, face car mountain, etc.). Any object similar to one of the basic shapes is a mass form. Those objects made up of “branching surfaces” are of the general family of skeletal forms (i.e., a tree, a bridge with girder supports, a bicycle, a spoked wheel, a skeleton, etc.).
EXERCISE #7: DRAWING a MASS OBJECT from REAL LIFE: (25 Pts: 2 Periods)
Using pencil on 9”x12” drawing paper render a drawing of an object from real life that falls under the structural family of mass objects. Work from real life observation, a still life or a photograph. Do not work from your imagination. Observe that empty space (ground) often has value(s) different from white. Don’t leave your background space white unless it really is white in value.
EXERCISE #8: DRAWING a SKELETAL OBJECT from REAL LIFE: (25 Pts: 2 Periods)
Using pencil on 9”x12” white drawing paper, render something from real life that falls under the structural family of skeletal objects. Work from real life observation, a still life or a photograph. Do not work from your imagination. Observe that empty space (ground) often has value(s) different from white. Don’t leave your background space white unless it really is white in value.
WHAT IS TEXTURE?
Texture is the specific surface characteristic of a particular object. An object or surface may be rough, smooth, tacky, abrasive, etc.). Any surface has an overall pattern or design that reflects its texture. The artist is sometimes called upon to create the illusion of different textures in drawings and paintings, and the sculptor creates actual on 3-dimensional work such as ceramics or sculpture.
EXERCISE #9: EXPERIMENTING WITH TEXTURE:
TEXTURAL RUBBING PROCEDURE for the FOLLOWING EXERCISES: Place thin paper (typing or tracing paper) over any textured surface. Using the side of your pencil lead, make a series of up and down or back and forth motions with the lead in contact with the paper. Repeat the procedure until a TEXTURAL RUBBING appears on the surface of your paper. Textural rubbings are an excellent way for a person to become more aware of surface qualities.
EXERCISE #9A: Using pencil on a sheet of typing paper, make thirty (30) textural rubbings from thirty (30) different textural surfaces. Each rubbing should be approximately 1 ½” square. Label each rubbing. (Practice: 1/2 to 1 Period)
EXERCISE #9B: Using a permanent marker, divide a sheet of thin typing paper into a minimum of twenty (20) areas. Use the textural rubbing procedure to fill each area with textures. You must use a minimum of fifteen different textures, while up to five (5) textures may be repeated. (25 Pts: 1 Period)
EXERCISE #9C: Down the left side of a sheet of thin typing paper, do a minimum of five (5) textural rubbings approximately 2”x2” in size. To the right of each rubbing, make a drawing of the rubbing, trying to duplicate the textural characteristic as closely as possible. (25 Pts: 1 Period )
Textural rubbings are an excellent means of becoming more aware of texture.
DRAWING UNIT TERMS in REVIEW:
Art: Art is the process of “bringing into being” or the “making visible of mental images.
Drawing: Drawing is the use of “lines” and marks” to create an illusion.
Figure and Ground: The “image” created by the use of lines and marks is the figure, while the surface of the paper represents ground or empty space.
Style: Style describes “how” an artist uses lines and marks to create images.
Deliberate-precise style: This style involves drawings with very rigid and controlled lines and marks that project a feeling of ”order” or “regularity”.
Free-action style: This style involves drawing with free flowing and spontaneous lines and marks that project a feeling of “excitement” and “movement.”
Line: A line results from a point being set in motion---straight motion, curved motion, angular motion---and may travel vertically, horizontally, diagonally, or in a circular motion or direction. A line possesses weight, tone, and texture, travels at various rates of speed, divides space, and gives outline to form.
Structural Families: The vast range of forms in real life fall into “two principle types of objects … mass and skeletal.
Skeletal Structure: Any structure that can be represented by a number of lines moving in different branching directions, all connected to a main stem by a series of joints or attachments (i.e., a tree, a bike, etc.), is skeletal.
Mass Structure: Any object that has bulk and a concentrated area of displacement is considered to be a mass object.
Texture: Texture is the specific characteristic of a surface (rough, smooth, etc.).
DRAWING UNIT TERMS TEST: (50 PTS.- )
.Color Theory and Design Unit
.BASIC COLOR PRINCIPLES:All color theory is based on “light theory” and the concept that “color is light.” Each color has its own wavelength of light. Receivers in the back of the eye interpret the different wavelengths as different colors. White light is a combination of all the color wavelengths. When white light is passed through a crystal prism, it is dispersed into the spectrum range of visible colors.PIGMENTS:Pigment, the chemical compound of paint, has the property of absorbing certain wavelengths of light and reflecting others. A color surface producing the visual sensation of “red” contains pigment that absorbs all of the color wavelengths of white light except the red wavelength that is reflected back to the eye.White pigment reflects all wavelengths, while black pigment absorbs all color wavelengths. Thus, the visual perception of “black” is the absence of color completely, as the eye receives no wavelengths whatsoever. Black is considered to be the absence of all color.PRIMARY COLORS:Color mixing through the use of pigments is based on the primary colors. The three primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. All the other colors of the color wheel can be achieved by mixing the primary colors together in different proportions.SECONDARY COLORS:The three secondary colors of orange, violet and green are achieved by mixing primary colors together in approximately equal amounts. Mixing red and yellow together in equal amounts achieves orange; mixing red and blue in equal amounts achieves violet; and mixing yellow and blue in equal amounts creates green.TERTIARY COLORS:The six tertiary (or third level) colors are achieved by mixing the primary colors with adjacent secondary colors. Mixing red and orange achieves red-orange; mixing red and violet achieves red-violet; mixing blue and green achieves blue-green; mixing blue and violet creates blue-violet; mixing yellow and green achieves yellow-green; and mixing yellow and orange creates yellow-orange.EXERCISE #1: The TWELVE-COLOR COLOR WHEEL (25 Pts: 2 Periods)Using tempera paint on 9”x12” white paper, create a 12-color color wheel. You may use any design concept you wish, but your design must have twelve color areas approximately 1 ½” x 1 ½” in size. Maintain the same value (lightness) for all your colors. This will require adding white to some of the darker colors of red and blue. Yellow is generally a lighter value out of the bottle. The colors should flow in order as much as possible. Your color wheel must have the following colors:Red Red-orange Orange Yellow-orangeYellow Yellow-green Green Blue-greenBlue Blue-violet Violet Red Violet.COMPLEMENTARY COLORS:Complementary colors are any two (2) colors directly opposite each other on the twelve-color color wheel. Complements have opposite wavelengths and offer the maximum contrast achievable using two colors. Complements include one warm color and one cool color, and when used together they project a loud and brash mood. The following page lists the color complements.Complementary color pairs:Red and GreenRed-violet and Yellow-GreenBlue and OrangeBlue-green and Red-orangeViolet and YellowBlue-violet and Yellow-orange.An INTRODUCTION to the DESIGN PRINCIPLES of REPETITION and CONTRAST:The multiple use of the same element or group of elements is the design principle of repetition. Repeating the same elements creates a pattern or repetitive motif..Oftentimes designs that rely solely on repetition can be monotonous or boring. To make designs more interesting, add or include one contrasting element. The introduction of one unique element is the design principle of contrast, and the “different” and contrasting component becomes the center of interest.EXERCISE #2: CREATING a CONTRAST DESIGN USING COMPLEMENTARY COLORS: (25 Pts: 2 to 3 Periods).Divide your 9”x12” paper into 1” squares. Superimpose over the squares the silhouette of a contrasting shape, being careful not to stop the shape at any existing line or where two lines cross.
Using tempera paint, paint the squares outside of the contrasting shape as a checkerboard using any two complementary colors. Inside the contrasting shape reverse the colors within any square along the edge of your contrasting shape, continuing the checkerboard within the shape..TRIADIC COLORS:Triadic colors are any three (3) colors that are equidistant, or the same distance apart, on the color wheel. Triads create the maximum contrast achievable using three colors. The following colors are triads:Red, Yellow and Blue (Primary Colors)Orange, Violet and Green (Secondary Colors)Red-orange, Yellow-green and Blue-violetYellow-orange, Blue-green and Red-violet.EXERCISE #3: CREATING a DESIGN in CONTRAST USING a TRIADIC COLOR SCHEME: (25 Pts: 2 Periods)On a sheet of 9”x12” paper, repeat any shape a minimum of twelve (12) times. Superimpose the silhouette of the same shape, but larger in size, over the original repetitive field. Use tempera paint to do the following. Outside of the large shape, use one triad for the background and a second for the shapes. Within the larger shape use the third triad for any of the smaller shapes. For the background within the larger shape, use the same color as was used for the small shapes outside the large shape. This process creates a design in contrast of size or proportion.
An INTRODUCTION to the DESIGN PRINCIPLE of HARMONY:Harmony is the principle of design that involves the use of elements that are “similar but not exactly the same.” Harmonious elements project a feeling of “family” or belonging together.
ANALOGOUS COLORS:Analogous colors are any three (3) colors adjacent, or right next to each other, on the color wheel. Analogous colors have a color in common, and project a feeling of harmony, or belonging together...EXERCISE #4: CREATING a DESIGN in HARMONY of LINE and SHAPE: (25 Pts: 2 Periods)Using tempera paint on a sheet of 9”x12” white drawing paper, create a design that incorporates at least three (3) harmonious shapes and three (3) harmonious lines. The shapes and lines can be repeated as many times as you wish. Paint the design using an analogous color scheme. You may use as many values of the three analogous colors as you wish. You also may use black for your background, as black is considered to be the “absence of color” and does not affect the color scheme..An INTRODUCTION to the DESIGN PRINCIPLE of GRADATION:The principle of gradation involves changes within a design that occur in small sequential steps, going from one extreme to another. For example, a design involving a series of circles going from small to large would be gradation of proportion (or size); a design with a series of shapes going from dark to light, in sequence, would be gradation of value; and a design with a series of lines that change from straight to bent would be gradation of line. A color wheel involving the changing of colors in sequential order would be gradation of color..SPLIT-COMPLEMENTARY COLORS:A split-complementary color scheme consists of any color plus the colors on each side of the original color’s complement. The following sets are split-complementary color schemes:red…………….. blue-green, yellow green red-orange……. blue, greenyellow………… red-violet, blue-purple yellow-orange…. violet, blueblue…………….red-orange, yellow-orange yellow-green……violet, redorange………… blue-green, blue-violet blue-green………red, orangeviolet…………. yellow-green, yellow-orange blue-violet…… orange, yellowgreen………….. red-orange, red-purple red-violet……… green, yellowSplit-complementary color schemes are often used in interior design and interior decorating. For instance, a room that is done primarily in blue-greens and yellow-greens might have a flower arrangement, conversation piece, or artwork that is done primarily in reds. The red acts as an accent color that makes the blue-greens and yellow-greens appear more rich and vibrant.EXERCISE #5: CREATING a GRADATION DESIGN USING a SPLIT-COMPLEMENTARY COLOR SCHEME: (25 Pts: 2 Periods)Using a split-complementary color scheme (tempera paint) on 9”x12” paper, create a design that utilizes gradation of shape, value, proportion (size) and/or direction. Examples might include the following: steps in a process of changing an apple into an apple core; cracking and breaking a form such as a heart in steps; showing steps in a sunrise or sunset; melting an icicle in stages, making the icicle gradually smaller and the puddle underneath gradually larger; pealing and taking bites from a banana, etc..MONOCHROMATIC COLOR SCHEMES:A monochromatic color scheme involves using different values or shades of the same color (mono=one, and chroma=color). Values of a color are achieved by adding different amounts of white to a color. Shades of a color are achieved by adding varying amounts of black to a color.EXERCISE #6: CREATING a GRADATION DESIGN USING a MONOCHROMATIC COLOR SCHEME: (25 Pts: 2 to 3 Periods)Using tempera paint on 9”x12” paper, create a design that involves at least twenty steps of a color gradually changing from dark to light..COMPLEMENTARY-MIX:Complementary-mix involves the “graying” or “dulling” of a color by adding the color’s complement. For example, if we have a bright, intense color of red that we want to make less intense, we can add a small amount of the complement, which is “green.” Theoretically, complementary colors of the same value and intensity mixed together in equal amounts, yields gray. Understanding the mixing of complementary colors is a very important concept for the artist. Art supply manufacturers produce very bright, intense colors, and the artist must understand the procedure for dulling a color. A color can be made less intense by adding the color’s complement, or black, but if manufacturers produced dull colors, there would be no way for the artist to make the color more intense.EXERCISE #7: CREATING a GRADATION DESIGN USING COMPLEMENTARY-MIX: (25 Pts: 2-3 Periods).Using tempera paint on 9”x12” paper, create a design that involves at least twenty steps of a color gradually changing from bright and intense to dull or grayed. The example below begins with pure, bright yellow in the center; and violet is gradually added to gray the color moving toward the outside of the design.COLOR UNIT TERMSPrimary colors: red, yellow and blue.Secondary colors: the colors of orange, green and violet that are achieved by mixing adjacent primary colors.Tertiary colors: the third level colors that are achieved by mixing adjacent primary and secondary colors. The tertiary colors are red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet and red-violet.Complementary colors: any two colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel. These colors have opposite wavelengths and create the maximum contrast achievable using two colors.Analogous colors: any two or three colors adjacent to each other on the color wheel. Analogous colors project a feeling of “harmony” or “belonging together.”Triadic colors: any three colors equidistant, or the same distance apart, on the color wheel. Triadic color schemes offer the maximum contrast achievable using three colors.Split-complementary color schemes: this three-color scheme consists of any one color plus the two colors located on each side of the original color’s complement. An example would be red plus blue-green and yellow-green.Monochromatic color scheme: the use of light, middle and dark values or shades of one color. An example would be light blue, middle blue and dark blue.Complementary-mix: graying, or making a color less intense, by adding the color’s complement.Cool colors: any color in which blue dominates.Warm colors: any color in which yellow, orange or red dominate...Color Theory Unit Test (50 Pts.): DATE:...xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.A Design Utilizing An Insect With A Stylized Border.
.Objectives:.1. Use a bug as a basis for the exploration of pattern and design.2. Use the concept of overlapping to create depth in a design.3. Use the design principle of harmony to create a border that enhances the overall design. (Identify bug charactersitics that can be stylized and used as a basis for the border.)(50 Pts: 4 to 5 days ).xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx..Linear Perspective:The use of linear techniques to create the illusion of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface such as paper or canvas is referred to as the study of perspective. An artist may use various linear techniques for representing three-dimensional objects and depth relationships. This unit will investigate the use of 1-point, 2-point and 3-point linear perspective techniques.One-Point Perspective Rule:When using 1-point perspective, every line must be vertical, horizontal or originate from the vanishing point for any edge that extends away from the viewer.PROJECTS A & B: Drawing Cubes in 1-Point Perspective (25 Pts: 2 to 3 Periods)Practice (as a group using PowerPoint Tutorial): On 9”x12” white drawing paper, duplicate the cubes shown below, using an eye level that passes through the middle row of cubes, and a vanishing point that is in the middle of the center cube. The top row illustrates what three cubes would look like above your eye level; the middle row illustrates what the three cubes would look like at, or even with, your eye level; and the bottom row illustrates what the three cubes would look like below your eye level.PROJECT A: On 9”x12” white drawing paper draw three rows of cubes using an eye level that passes through the middle row, and a vanishing point that is in the center of the far left cube in the middle row. Determine a directional light source and shade the cubes..PROJECT B: On 9”x12” white drawing paper draw three rows of cubes using an eye level that passes through the top row, and a vanishing point that is between the two cubes on the top right. Determine a light source and shade the cubes..PROJECT C: Drawing Room Interiors in 1-Point PerspectivePractice: On 9”x12” white drawing paper, duplicate the following room illustration as closely as possible. Keep in mind your eye level and vanishing point. Remember the One-Point Perspective Rule: Every line must be vertical, horizontal or originate at the vanishing point. (10Pts: 1/2 to 1 Period)PROJECT C: On 9”x12” white drawing paper, design a room using one-point perspective. Your room must include at least one door, one window, and two items of furniture. You may place your eye level and vanishing point any place you wish. Add details to the room to give it the “lived in” look. Use shading to create highlights and shadows within your drawing. (15 Pts.) (DUE: ).(25 Pts: 2 Periods): On 9”x12” white drawing paper, draw a room in your home or a room in the school using one-point perspective. You may place your eye level and vanishing point anywhere you wish. Use shading to create highlights and shadows within your drawing.PROJECT D: Drawing a Cityscape in One-Point Perspective
PROJECT D: On 9”x12” white drawing paper, design a cityscape with a minimum of ten (10) buildings. You may place your eye level and vanishing point anywhere you wish. You do not have to do a practice drawing for this project, but show the teacher your building outlines to assure you are using your vanishing point correctly before you add details. Add windows, doors, cars, people, etc., to make the cityscape more realistic. The smaller you make windows and objects, the larger the buildings will appear. Use shading to create highlights and shadows within your drawing..
(25 Pts: 3 Days): On 9”x12” white drawing paper, draw a city scene based on a local, downtown area. You may place your eye level and vanishing point anywhere you wish. Use shading to create highlights and shadows within your drawing...PROJECT E: Drawing Your Name in One-Point Perspective.PRACTICE: On 9”x 12” paper, duplicate the illustration below using one-point perspective. Keep in mind your eye level and vanishing point. (Note: Some of the lines in letters such as “R” and “N” do not follow the basic one-point perspective rule of lines being vertical, horizontal, or originating from the vanishing point.)(10 Pts.) (1/2 Period)..PROJECT E: On 9” x 12” paper, create a design using your name or nickname in one-point perspective. Place your eye level and vanishing point approximately 2” below the front edge of your block letters. Use shading to create highlights and shadows within your drawing. (15 Pts: 1 Period)EXTRA CREDIT: On 9” x 12” paper, use any word you wish to create a design, but this time move your eye level and vanishing point approximately 2” above the front edge of your block letters. Use shading to create highlights and shadows within your drawing.Two-Point Perspective Rule: Every line drawn must be vertical or originate from one of the two vanishing points.PROJECT F: Drawing Cubes in Two-Point PerspectivePRACTICE: On 9” x 12” paper, duplicate the cubes shown below. Use an eye level that passes through the middle row of cubes, a left vanishing point approximately 2” off the left edge of the paper, and a right vanishing point approximately 2” off the right edge of the paper. The vanishing points will always be on the eye level.(10 Pts: 1/2 to 1 Period))...ASSIGNMENT F: On 9” x 12” paper, draw three rows of cubes using an eye level that passes through the middle of the top row of cubes. Use left and right vanishing points approximately 2” off the edge of your paper. Shade your drawing. (15 Pts: 1 Period)..EXTRA CREDIT: On 9” x 12” paper, draw four rows of cubes using an eye level that passes through the middle of the bottom row. Use vanishing points that are about 2” off the edge of your paper...ASSIGNMENT G: Drawing Room Interiors Using Two-Point PerspectivePRACTICE: On 9” x 12” paper duplicate the room illustration below. Your eye level should be at a level where you re standing in the room (above half way on the wall). Begin your drawing with any vertical corner line. The two vanishing points should be approximately 2-3” off the edge of your paper. (25 Pts: 1 to 2 Periods).ASSIGNMENT G: On 9” x 12” paper, design a room using two-point perspective. Your room must include a minimum of one door, one window, and two items of furniture. Add items that suggest who lives in the room. Select whatever eye level you wish. Use left and right vanishing points approximately 2” off each side of your paper. Use shading to create highlights and shadows.(25 Pts: 2 Periods)EXTRA CREDIT: On 9” x 12” paper, draw a room in your home or a room in the school using two-point perspective. You may place your eye level and vanishing points wherever you wish. Use shading to create highlights and shadows.ASSIGNMENT H: Drawing Building Exteriors Using Two-Point PerspectivePRACTICE: On 9” x 12” paper duplicate the building exterior below as closely as possible. Use an eye level approximately half way up the walls. The two vanishing points should be approximately 2” off each side of the paper. Draw all the walls first, saving the roof for last. To locate the peak of a roof, first find the wall directly below where the peak will be. Extend two diagonal lines from both sets of opposite corners (see example). The peak of the roof can be anywhere on a vertical line above the point where the diagonals cross. In real life some roof angles are steeper than others. (Note: lines from the roof peak to the top corners of the walls do not follow the general two-point perspective rule). Make the roof overhang the walls. (25 Pts: 1 to 2 Periods).ASSIGNMENT H: On 9” x 12” paper, design your own building exterior using two-point perspective. You may place your eye level and vanishing points wherever you wish. Use shading to create highlights and shadow in your drawing. (25 Pts: 2 Periods)EXTRA CREDIT: On 9” x 12” paper, draw a house or building in your neighborhood.ASSIGNMENT I: Drawing a Cityscape Using Three-Point Perspective.In instances where the viewer’s vantage point is very high, such as views from an aircraft or the top of a building or hill, three-point perspective offers the best means of illustration. In the example below, the eye level or horizon line is the line that extends across the base of the mountains. The two side vanishing points are approximately 3” off each side of the paper on the horizon line, just as in two-point perspective. The street lines originate at the two vanishing points, and city blocks are created where these lines cross. The top and bottom lines of the buildings also go to the side vanishing points..The only difference in three-point perspective (from two-point perspective) is the use of a third vanishing point that is located approximately 4” below the middle of the bottom edge of the paper. All building corner lines that extend up from the ground originate from this third vanishing point below the paper.ASSIGNMENT I: On 9” x 12” paper, draw a cityscape using three-point perspective. Your city must include a minimum of fifteen (15) buildings. You do not need to do a practice drawing first, but show the teacher the main outlines of your buildings before you add details to assure you are using the proper perspective methods. Include windows, building levels, etc., to make the drawing as realistic as possible. The smaller the streets and building levels, the bigger the buildings will appear. Use shading to create highlights and shadows in your drawing. (25 Pts: 2 Periods)FINAL PERSPECTIVE PROJECT:Using any perspective method you wish, draw a room or neighborhood setting on 12” x 18” white drawing paper. Your drawing must include a minimum of three (3) people, and you must utilize shading to create highlights and shadows. Give attention to detail and create a mood or atmosphere for your drawing. You may work individually or in pairs. If you work in pairs, the finished drawing should reflect two people’s work. (50 Pts: 3-4 Periods)Concept Examples:1. Church (interior or exterior)2. Skid Row (exterior)3. Restaurant or Fast Food Place (interior or exterior)4. Family or Recreation Room (interior)5. Bar or Tavern (interior or exterior)6. Wealthy or Poor Neighborhood (exterior)........................................................................................................................................................